Description Chesterfield County, created in 1749 and located in the central region of the state, was part of one of the original shires of Virginia. Bordered on the east by the James River and on the south by the Appomattox, the land and its riches drew the Jamestown colonists to travel here to establish a second English colony. Chesterfield played an important role in the Revolutionary War as a training ground for soldiers as well as providing its sons to serve. During the Civil War, the residents again volunteered, and from them emerged four prominent generals of the Confederate army. In the late 1800s, the area known as Bon Air served as a summer retreat from the heat of nearby Richmond with summer cottages and hunting lodges. Since then, the county has grown and prospered with new manufacturing facilities moving in, residents establishing new neighborhoods, and the local government building roads and schools to bring the same freedoms that attracted the original colonists to the area.